Methods are the instructional techniques that facilitate learning. Media are the means of implementing those methods (as well as conveying the material to be learned). For example, methods include demonstrations, animations, examples, practice, and feedback.
Media include overhead slides, computers, video, workbooks, and instructors among others.
Methods refers to the way through which messages are conveyed to achieve a desired behavioral changes in target audience.
Media is the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.
Classification of Methods
This method includes person – to – person or face – to – face communication which provides maximum opportunities for two – way flow of ideas, knowledge and information. There should be good interaction between the health educator and a client. e. g. interview and counseling.
This method involves a group of limited persons who need some kind of health education need about certain health problems. It is an effective way to give health education because it provides the audience the ample opportunities for question-answer and discussion. e. g. demonstration, group-discussion, role-playing, panel-discussion, study-trip, project assignment, symposium, case-study, mini-lecture, training and workshop etc.
This method usually includes a large number of heterogeneous people having various social strata i. e. from different location, culture and position. Because of its complexity, there is no opportunity for two-way communication. It is more beneficial when there is lack of resources and inadequate time. e. g. lecture or public speech, exhibition and campaign.
Typical methods of health promotion
This is the traditional classroom mode of instruction and usually refers to a formal presentation of information, concepts or principles by an individual. A lecture can be modified to include discussion, demonstration and application.
This method is an instructor-controlled, interactive process of meeting performance objectives by sharing information and learner experiences in the classroom.
The demonstration is the basic method for teaching psychomotor skills.
The case study method uses a detailed written description of a real or imaginary situation that can be analyzed and discussed by the learners.
In role-playing the learners act out a situation based on real life.
Selection of methods and media
In the selection of the instructional media, Romiszowski(1997) says that the main categories of factors that may influence the choice of media are:
1. Task factors– the type of objectives, and hence the type of learning activities which should be provided for the learner.
2. Learner factors– some learners may learn better from certain media than from others3. Economics/availability factors– this may limit the choice in practice
Importance of Health Education Methods
- Helps to disseminate health information and ideas to the audience.
- Motivate people to adopt healthy behaviours.
- They help to encourage for team approach in learning and solving health problems.
- Exhibition helps to develop creativity in learners.
- Methods like study trip enables students to relate what they have learnt in the classroom to reality of outside world.
- Some methods like group discussion , role play,workshop, symposium and brainstorming helps to interact with participants in the group
Effective ways of using methods:
(a) Plan well before the methods are used: What, why, when, where and how to use methods
(b) Plan of the physical facilities and audiences:
(c) Use methods according to the teaching learning situation and the target learners
(d) Follow the criteria of evaluation of the used methods
Educational aids /Media used in health education
The aids used for transmitting health education are the main constituent of the armamentarium of health education process
- Based on the principles of sound, electricity and magnetism
- Useful in reproducing any kind of words spoken and also helps in repeating the same
- Gramophone records and discs
- Tape records
- Sound amplifiers
- Based on the principle of projection.
- Helps individuals to understand better.
- Examples are;
- Bulletin Boards
- Film Strip
- Flannel board
- Graphs and charts
- Flash Card
- overhead Projector
- Printed aids-textbook,newspaper and periodicals
Audio Visual aids
Adhikari is a founder of publichealthglobe.com and a public health enthusiast aiming to create an impact on the community all across the globe. A true believer of Prevention is better than cure.