Historical development of public health in Nepal and its development can be traced in sequential periods from before 2007B.S and onwards.
Development of Public Health before 2007 B.S
- Smallpox Vaccination was introduced for the Rana Families.
- Concepts of curative and preventive services were froth with the establishment of Bir Hospital in 1947B.S, Leprosarium in Tokha and Transmitted disease hospital in Teku.
Development of Public Health After 2007 B.S
- The concept of Planned development was come into force and different three years, five years plans were developed (the pre-plan period was set for 1951-1955A.D).
- In 2008 B.S, an insect-borne disease control unit was established with the assistance of USAID.
- Ministry of health was established in 2013 B.S which has served a public health service unit.
Development during 2016 -2029 B.S
- Different Vertical projects were launched.Nepal Malaria Eradication Project was started in 2015B.S
- Kanti Hospitals, Health training institutions. In 2019B.S Health Ministry implemented a new health policy–one health center in each 105 electoral constituencies.
- In the year 2019 B.S. there were 32 hospitals and 104 health centers in the public sector.
- Regionalization of health services – 1964-1974 AD With the political division of the country into 75districts and 14 zones, in 1964 regionalization of health services was started and new zonal hospitals were established in Biratnagar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, Birganj, Butwal, Pokhra, and Nepalganj.
- The Tuberculosis Control project was established in 2022 B.S
- In 2024 B.S, the Small Pox control pilot project was started
- Maternal and child health (MCH) and Family planning project was launched in 2025 B.S
- In 2029 B.S, the Institute of Medicine was established to produce different cadres of Health workforces.
Development during 2029- 2044 B.S
- Reform was made in the health care system and an integrated health care delivery system was started in late 2029 B.S( pilot phase was implemented in Bara and Kaski districts ). Therefore 2029BS is considered as the start of “Modern Public Health in Nepal”.
- Health post was considered the basic outlet of health care delivery system.
- First Long Term Health Plan (1975- 1990 AD) was developed in 2032 B.S and it was implemented.
- Nepal has signed into the principles of the Alma Ata Declaration ( 1978 A.D)
- Concept of Health for All by 2000A.D was started.
Development during 2045- 2063
- In 2048B.S, a new health policy was introduced
- An integrated health service program was introduced in a phase-wise manner.
- The second long-term health plan (1947-2017A.D) was developed in 2054B.S and it was put into operation.
Development after 2064 B.S and onwards
- Interim constitution of Nepal 2063 B.S recognized the health as a fundamental right.
- Second National Health Policy was enacted in 2071 B.S
- National Health Policy 2076 B.S has been formulated on the basis of the lists of exclusive and concurrent powers and functions of federal, state and local levels as per the constitution; the policies and programmes of the Government of Nepal; the international commitments made by Nepal at different times; and the problems, challenges, available resources and evidences in the health sector.
Adhikari is a founder of publichealthglobe.com and a public health enthusiast aiming to create an impact on the community all across the globe. A true believer of Prevention is better than cure.